Unit 5: Modern India Mac's History

  1. Unit 5: Modern India Mac's History War
  2. Unit 5: Modern India Mac's History Timeline
Published on: June 27, 2013 Updated on: February 2, 2019

Imperialism can be defined as the take over and rule of a weaker nation by a stronger nation. British imperialism in India is the most suitable example to explain how one nation can make use of another nation through total control for profit. But before going into details, there are certain questions that need to be explored like how a small company could take control of such a huge nation and what the impact of imperialism was. Let’s go back to the history of British imperialism.

As Indian spices, like Indian wealth, were world famous, so many invaders came to India. With an interest in trade, small European ships in the early 1600s came to South Asia, especially in search of spices. India at that time was being ruled by Mughals from Afghan. So their first encounter was with the Mughal Empire.

'Reviews: The high politics of India's Partition: the revisionist perspective' by Asim Roy (Modern Asian Studies, 24, 2 (1990), pp. 385-415) Top About the author. In Hindi 5 Seer = Panch (5) Seer, or Paseri for short 1 Daseri = 2 Pasri = 10 Seer In Hindi 10 Seer = Das (10) Seer, or Daseri for short 1 Maund (maan or manमण) = 4 Daseri = 8 Pasri = 40 Seer Rice and Grains Volume Measures. Grains were not weighed. Special hour-glass shaped measure were used to determine the volume. Smallest unit = 1 Nilve. PDF - Chapter 5 - Classical Greece PDF - Chapter 6 - Ancient Rome and Early Christianity PDF - Chapter 7 - India and China Establish Empires PDF - Chapter 8 - African Civilizations PDF - Chapter 9 - The Americas: A Separate World (40,000 B.C.-A.D. 700) PDF - Chapter 10 - The Muslim World (600-1250). The East India Company: A History by Philip Lawson (London, 1993) Bengal: The British Bridgehead, Eastern India, 1740-1828 in The New Cambridge History of India, (vol. II, 2) by P J Marshall.

Mughal rulers, who were Muslims and Afghans, used to work in close connection with local Hindu rulers. Famous Mughal Emperor Akbar (1556-1605) even married Hindu princesses to expand his rule in India. There existed a very strong regionality in India that had never allowed cultural unification of India. This was the weakest point of India. Moreover, India on the political front was never united.

Till 1700, the Mughal Empire enjoyed its peak but then it started to decline in India because Hindu rulers with time went against the biased policies of Mughals. As per these policies, non-Muslims had to pay more taxes. Hindu Marathas dishonored the Mughals, Hindus and Sikhs at large and started disliking the Mughal leadership. So, a sort of turmoil was going on when the British came to India.

On the other hand, Europeans had a more powerful and advanced army. Hence, the regional Nawabs of that time started visiting Europeans for military support and protection. At the same time, Europeans were more interested in trade and Mughals became uninterested in the trade at shore as they used to get revenue from agricultural taxes. So, Mughals were no longer guarding the coast. This gave a way to British and their rule in India.

Seeing India’s potential in trade and market, the economic interest of British started growing in India. The East India Company with this interest, set up three trading posts one each at Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. Initially Europeans traders were kept under control by the strong Mughal Empire. But the decline of Mughal Empire by 1707 made a way for the British to win Indian territories. In 1757, the Battle of Plassey was the first victory of the British East India Company in which Robert Clive was leading the troops.

With time, control of the East India Company over Indian territories started increasing and now it was including modern Bangladesh and most of southern India and almost all the regions along the River Ganges in North India. The East India Company and all its efforts in India as well as London were ultimately regulated by the British Government. But the company had its own army of sepoys that was led by British Officers.

Initially, the British were interested in India for its immense potential for profit. But with the Industrial Revolution in Britain, British interest in India changed to become even more profit oriented. Now, India was the source of raw materials as well as her large population was the possible market for British-made goods. With this, India became the most valuable market and nation for British colonies.

But this was totally against the development of India as all sorts of restrictions were put on India to curb the Indian economy. Indians were forced to buy British-made goods and along with this, Indian goods were not allowed to compete with British goods. All the local producers and handloom textile industry of India was put out of business.

The British laid down an extensive railroad network for transporting raw material from interior parts of India. India was a great source of cotton, coffee, tea, jute, indigo and opium. British used to sell opium to China for tea that they sold in England. The British now held economic as well as political power over India. Many villages suffered, as much emphasis was laid on cash crop, rather than on the self-sufficiency of the British. This resulted in the less production of crop for food. Due to this, a great famine in the late 1880s occurred in India. Even the religious as well as traditional life in India started getting affected as British increased the number of missionaries to promote Christianity.

Unit 5: Modern India Mac

By 1850, almost the entire India was under the control of British, but now a discontent started taking place in the hearts of Indians. Constant racism and British attempts to convert Indians to Christianity was the major reason for this discontent. The outbreak of the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857 was the first war for independence, in which 85-90 Indian sepoys refused to accept cartridges that they believed were greased with beef and pork fat. The outbreak was so wide that the East India Company took almost a year to regain full control over India. A Hindu and Muslim split was the main reason why Indians were weak in front of the British. Some Hindus were totally against Mughal rule and were in favor of British rule.

But the Mutiny can be called a turning point in Indian history. In 1858, after the Mutiny, the British government took full control of India. Now India directly came under British rule. From then onwards, there was a change in the mindset of Indians as well. They were uniting hands for freedom and from time-to-time Indian history had seen many struggles for freedom.

British imperialism in India had impacted the nation adversely. First of all, India’s wealth was drained to a great extent during this period. British rule in India hit the Indian economy so hard that it was never able to recover. Religious conflicts and gaps expanded. Local handicraft and cotton industries were ruined, as the British wanted to promote and sell their products. Food production was reduced as more and more opium was being produced for selling it to other countries. This led to great famines and poverty in India.

Though India had suffered a lot, but the past is past and nobody can change it. We must work hard to bring back our lost glory. We must stand united against all the social evils that have now started ruling our country. Let us not again enter into the world of slavery to suffer.

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(Record Group 493)
1941-47

Table of Contents

  • 493.1 Administrative History
  • 493.2 General records 1942-45
  • 493.3 Records of the U.S. Military Mission to China 1941-42
  • 493.4 Records of Headquarters U.S. Army Forces, China-Burma-India (HQ USAF CBI) 1942-44
  • 493.5 Records of Headquarters U.S. Forces, China Theater (HQ USF CT) 1941-46
  • 493.6 Records of Headquarters U.S. Forces, India-Burma Theater (HQ USF IBT) 1942-46
  • 493.7 Records of the U.S. Branch of Executive Headquarters 1946-47
  • 493.8 Records of the Peiping headquarters Group 1946-47

493.1 Administrative History

Related Records:
Records of U.S. Army Service Forces (World War II), RG 160.
Records of Naval Operating Forces, RG 313.
Records of the Army Staff, RG 319.
Records of Allied Operational and Occupation Headquarters, World War II, RG 331.
Records of U.S. Theaters of War, World War II, RG 332.
Records of Interservice Agencies, RG 334.
Records of U.S. Army Operational, Tactical, and Support Organizations (World War II and Thereafter), RG 338.
Records of U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations, RG 342.

493.2 General Records
1942-45

Maps and Charts: Military situations, supply andtransportation routes, organization charts, topography, locationsof airfields, and defenses, primarily in China, Burma, Thailand,and India, 1942-45 (159 items).

493.3 Records of the U.S. Military Mission to China
1941-42

History: Commonly referred to as 'AMMISCA' ('American Mission toChina'). Established August 27, 1941, to facilitate lend-leaseaid to China. Headed by Brig. Gen. John Magruder. Functions andpersonnel absorbed by Headquarters American Army Forces, China,Burma, India (predecessor of U.S. Army Forces, China-Burma-India;see 493.4), by May 1942. Discontinued by September 1944.

Textual Records: Incoming weekly reports, September 1941-January1942. Outgoing messages, February-December 1942.

493.4 Records of Headquarters U.S. Army Forces, China-Burma-India (HQ USAF CBI)
1942-44

History: Headquarters American Army Forces, China, Burma, andIndia (HQ AAF CBI) established in Chungking, China, by GeneralOrder 1, HQ AAF CBI, March 4, 1942, pursuant to Secretary ofWar's appointment of Maj. Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell as CommandingGeneral of all U.S. Army forces in China, Burma, and India,conveyed in a Chief of Staff memorandum to the Adjutant General,WPD 4389-64, February 2, 1942. (By same memorandum, Gen. Stilwellwas appointed Republic of China army chief of staff.) By May1942, HQ AAF CBI had absorbed Chungking staff of U.S. MilitaryMission to China, commonly known as 'AMMISCA' ('American Missionto China'), established August 27, 1941, to facilitate lend-leaseaid to China. A second AAF CBI headquarters was established inNew Delhi, India, by letter of the Commanding General, June 25,1942, pursuant to War Department message 354, sent as CM-OUT5537, June 22, 1942, in effect instructing Gen. Stilwell toorganize a theater of operations staff. Thenceforth, the area ofoperations over which Gen. Stilwell had command of U.S. Armyforces was referred to as the China-Burma-India (CBI) Theater.

By Letter of Instructions, HQ AAF CBI (Chungking), July 6, 1942,Chungking headquarters was designated HQ AAF CBI, and New Delhiheadquarters was designated Branch Office, HQ AAF CBI. To avoidconfusion with the Army Air Forces' acronym, 'AAF,' HQ AAF CBIwas redesignated HQ USAF CBI, by September 12, 1942. Status of HQUSAF CBI as a theater headquarters was confirmed by letter of theSecretary of War to the Commanding General, USAF CBI, AG 320.2(1-26-43) OB-I-GN-M, January 29, 1943. HQ AAF CBI redesignatedForward Echelon, HQ USAF CBI; and Branch Office, HQ AAF CBIredesignated Rear Echelon, HQ USAF CBI, effective April 1, 1944,by General Order 5, Forward Echelon, HQ USAF CBI, March 31, 1944,with Rear Echelon in charge of overall planning andadministration, and Forward Echelon responsible for liaison withChinese Government and execution of Rear Echelon directives toU.S. Army organizations in China.

Gen. Stilwell recalled by President Roosevelt, October 21, 1944,announced October 28, 1944. By War Department message WARX 52150,October 25, 1944, sent same date as CM-OUT 52150, CBI Theaterdivided, effective October 24, 1944, into China Theater (see 493.5) and India-Burma Theater (see 493.6).

Textual Records: Official, but personal, records of theCommanding General ('Eyes Alone' Correspondence'), February 28,1942-October 30, 1944, consisting of correspondence, memorandums,and messages, and including records relating to his relief fromcommand ('Oklahoma File'). Miscellaneous historical records, ca.1942-44. Decimal correspondence of the Y-Force Operations Staff,1942-44, documenting its mission to train and equip Chinese unitsconstituting Y-Force, and acting as liaison between HQ USAF CBIand those units. General records maintained by the AdjutantGeneral Section, 1942-44, including central decimalcorrespondence, incoming messages, and issuances. Circulars ofHeadquarters Rear Echelon, 1942-44. Records of the Services ofSupply (SOS), China-Burma-India, 1942-44, including anorganizational history, staff memorandums, SOS general orders,and general orders of Advance Section 1.

Microfilm Publications: M1419.

493.5 Records of Headquarters U.S. Forces, China Theater (HQUSF CT)
1941-46

History: See 493.4 for a history of predecessor HeadquartersU.S. Army Forces, China, Burma, and India. HQ USF CT establishedin Chungking by General Order 1, HQ USF CT, October 25, 1944,under command of Maj. Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer, appointedeffective October 24, 1944. Moved to Shanghai, October 14, 1945.Abolished, effective May 1, 1946, by General Order 97, HQ USF CT,April 29, 1946, with residual functions transferred toHeadquarters U.S. Army Forces in China (HQ USAF China),established by General Order 1, May 1, 1946. HQ USAF Chinaabolished, effective July 1, 1946, by HQ USAF China message CFBX0346, June 28, 1946, received as CM-IN 6332, June 29, 1946.

Unit 5: Modern India Mac's History War

Textual Records: Records of the Office of the Commanding General,1944-46. Records concerning the Command and General Staff Schoolat the Chinese Training Center, Kunming ('Col. Elbert Martin'sFiles'), 1944-45. General records maintained by the AdjutantGeneral Section, ca. 1944-46, including central correspondence,messages, daily bulletins and other issuances, and historicalnarratives. Records of the G-2 (Intelligence) Section, 1943-46,including records dealing with the Sino Translation andInterrogation Center. Records of the G-3 (Operations) Section,ca. 1944-46, consisting of general correspondence, and recordsrelating to personnel assignments. Records of the G-5 (CivilAffairs) Section, ca. 1944-46, including messages concerning therecovery of downed U.S. airmen and prisoners of war, 1945.Records, ca. 1944-46, of the following special staff sections:Interpreter Affairs, Lend-Lease, Ordnance, Provost Marshal,Quartermaster, Theater Planning, and Transportation. Records ofHeadquarters Rear Echelon, 1941-45, consisting of general recordsmaintained by the Adjutant General Section, and subject files ofthe Theater Psychological Warfare Officer. Records of general andspecial staff sections, and subordinate commands, of the Servicesof Supply (SOS), China Theater, 1942-45 (bulk 1944-45). Recordsof general and special staff sections of the joint Chinese-American Services of Supply for the Chinese Army, February-September 1945. Records of the following Chinese training andcombat commands under U.S. supervision: Z-Force Operations Staff,1943-44; and Chinese Combat Command (Provisional), 1943-45,including records of subordinate commands.

493.6 Records of Headquarters U.S. Forces, India-Burma Theater(HQ USF IBT)
1942-46

History: See 493.4 for a history of predecessor HeadquartersU.S. Army Forces, China, Burma, and India. HQ USF IBT establishedin New Delhi by General Order 1, HQ USF IBT, October 27, 1944,under command of Lt. Gen. Daniel I. Sultan, appointed effectiveOctober 24, 1944. Responsible for U.S. forces in India, Ceylon,Burma, Thailand, the Malay States, and Sumatra. Gen. Sultansucceeded in command by Maj. Gen. Raymond A. Wheeler, June 23,1945. HQ USF IBT moved to Calcutta, April 15, 1946. Abolished,effective May 31, 1946, by General Order 174, HQ USF IBT, May 23,1946.

Textual Records: Correspondence and reports relating toactivities of the Chinese Army in India, 1942-45. General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1944-45, including central decimalcorrespondence, messages, and records concerning plans andoperations. Correspondence and daily intelligence summaries ofthe G-2 (Intelligence) Section, 1944-45. Correspondence, subjectfiles, and records of meetings of the G-4 (Logistics) Section,1944-45. Correspondence, issuances, and other records of thefollowing special staff organizations: Army Exchange Service,Chaplain, Chemical Warfare, Claims, Theater Claims, Engineer,Fiscal, Historical, Inspector General (Headquarters andHeadquarters Detachment), Judge Advocate General, Medical,Ordnance, Port of Debarkation, Postal, Provost Marshal, PublicRelations, Rest Camps, Signal, Special Services, andTransportation. General correspondence and staff section recordsof the Ledo Area Command, 1943-46. Correspondence and messages ofthe Detachment, U.S. Army in India, 1943-46.

493.7 Records of the U.S. Branch of Executive Headquarters
1946-47

History: Executive Headquarters established in Peiping (Peking),China, by order of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, January 11,1946, as a tripartite organization of the Chinese NationalistGovernment, the Chinese Communist Party, and the U.S. Government.Responsible for effecting a cease-fire between ChineseNationalist and Communist forces, as agreed upon, December 1945,by the Committee of Three, consisting of Gen. Chang Chun for theNationalists; Gen. Chou En-lai for the Communists; and Gen.George C. Marshall, special envoy of the President. Pursuant toan announcement, January 29, 1947, of U.S. Government's intent towithdraw from Committee of Three and Executive Headquarters, U.S.Branch of Executive Headquarters was abolished by U.S. Branchmemorandum CDR 902, February 6, 1947, with residual functionstransferred to Sino Liaison Office, established in PeipingHeadquarters Group by same memorandum.

Textual Records: Records of the U.S. Commissioner, 1946-47,including memorandums sent to and received from the ChineseNationalist and Communist commissioners; and memorandums sent tothe Chinese Nationalist and Communist branches. General recordsof the Director of Operations, 1946-47. Records of the U.S.Branch staff, 1946-47, consisting of a subject file of the Chiefof Staff; and correspondence, reports, and other records of theConflict Control, Communications, Army Reorganization, and PublicRelations Groups, and the Current Section. Subject file and otherrecords of the Advance Section, 1946-47. Records relating to theYenan Liaison Group, 1946-47.

Related Records: 'Operations Report, the Executive Headquarters,Peiping China, 1946-47' (Section I: 'U.S. Branch, ExecutiveHeadquarters'; Section II: 'Peiping Headquarters Group'), 4vols., submitted April 2, 1947, in Operations and Plans Divisiondecimal correspondence, 1946-48, decimal 091 China, case 112, inRG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

493.8 Records of the Peiping Headquarters Group
1946-47

History: Established, effective January 11, 1946, by GeneralOrder 12, Headquarters U.S. Forces, China Theater (HQ USF CT),January 14, 1946, with mission to assist U.S. Branch of ExecutiveHeadquarters . Brig. Gen. Henry A. Byroade servedsimultaneously as Peiping Headquarters Group commanding generaland Executive Headquarters director of operations, January 11-June 6, 1946, as did his successor, Brig. Gen. T.S. Timberman,June 6, 1946-October 12, 1947. Following abolition of HQ USF CT,April 30, 1946, Peiping Headquarters Group assigned to newlyestablished Headquarters U.S. Army Forces in China (HQ USAFChina), May 1, 1946. Effective July 1, 1946, by HQ USAF Chinamessage CFBX 0346, June 28, 1946, received as CM-IN 6332, June29, 1946, HQ USAF China abolished, with Peiping HeadquartersGroup designated an independent command directly responsible toWar Department. All Peiping Headquarters Group organizationsexcept Peiping Depot abolished, effective April 8, 1947, byGeneral Order 49, HQ Peiping Headquarters Group, April 3, 1947,with Peiping Depot reassigned to Army Advisory Group, Nanking.

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1946-47. Message files,1946-47. Records of the Historical Section, 1946-47, including asubject file, news bulletins, a history of ExecutiveHeadquarters, and diaries and histories of field teams. Generalrecords, 1946-47, of the Headquarters Detachment, Office of theSurgeon, Special Services Section, Transportation Section, andPeiping Depot.

Related Records: 'Operations Report, the Executive Headquarters,Peiping China, 1946-47' (Section I: 'U.S. Branch, ExecutiveHeadquarters'; Section II: 'Peiping Headquarters Group'), 4vols., submitted April 2, 1947; and 'Report of Inactivation,Peiping Headquarters Group, 5 February 1947-8 April 1947,'submitted April 5, 1947, in Operations and Plans Division decimalcorrespondence, 1946-48, decimal 091 China, case 112, in RG 319,Records of the Army Staff.

Unit 5: Modern India Mac's History Timeline

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.